Intellectual Property is defined by the WIPO as “creations of the mind, such as inventions; literary and artistic works; designs; and symbols, names and images used in commerce” (Switzerland, 2014). WIPO – an acronym for World Wide Intellectual Property Organization can be defined as a self-funding agency, containing 187 member states, which its main objective is to ensure intellectual property in a worldwide range. WIPO was signed at Stockholm on July 14, 1967 and has amended on September 28, 1979. Brazil has joined in 1975 (Switzerland, 2014).
In Brazil, since the constitution was established in October 5, 1988 (Brazil, 2014) there were concerns about intellectual property, and people interested in ensuring its creations (such like composers, writers) were responsible for movements concerning the government. Currently there are specific organizations (ECAD and INPE for instance) in which are responsible for registering patents and trade-marks, music, books and other kinds of intellectual property. It is common that this kind of organization manages royalties and yield related distribution issues.
In Brazil, 2013, was approved by the government a law project (Brazil, 2014) to change the music related intellectual property, in which the government would have involvement with the private intellectual property. The Central Office of Copyrights Collection (ECAD) and Brazilian Union of Compositors (UBC) intervened, claiming that the intellectual property issues are private and it doesn’t need intervention from the government, interrupting immediately the approval and taking it to a judgment in 2014. Another instance of public intervention in the Intellectual Property related issues is the claim for Software Patents in Brazil, which Free Software Activists in Brazil do not agree, because software in Brazil is protected by the Copyright law “(Lei 9279/96)” (Brazil, 2014) and not patents, considering that software patents would only restrict the innovation and it is only a concern by the dominant industry.
At the academic community, the most important public organs related in research in Brazil are concerned about plagiarism, in order to prevent and punish researchers financed by the government. In 2012, for the first time, was established the Integrity Academic Scientific Commission to take preventive actions about the integrity of the research published in Brazil.
Personally, I believe citation and referencing should be used at every academic work, and plagiarism often comes out when the author doesn’t have a domain at the research subject. My final undergraduate paper was my first experience on referencing and I believe at this Master’s Program I will have a chance to reach a high level on academic paper production. Moreover, I believe the Harvard Referencing System is simple and objective comparing to the Brazilian referencing styles that I used in my final undergraduate paper.
I believe at the first moment, that the Turnitin System offered by the University of Liverpool is a very smart anti-plagiarism system offering a wide-range on looking out for so many sources and publications, not only protecting the University, but also helping the student to produce an original and honest work.
What is Intellectual Property? [Online]. Available from: http://www.wipo.int/about-ip/en/index.html (Accessed: July 8, 2014).
Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization [Online]. Available from: http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/text.jsp?file_id=283854#article_1 (Accessed: July 8, 2014).
Brazilian Constitution [Online]. Available from: http://www2.stf.jus.br/portalStfInternacional/cms/verConteudo.php?sigla=portalStfSobreCorte_en_us&idConteudo=120010 (Accessed: July 8, 2014).
Brazilian Law 2853 [Online]. Available from: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2011-2014/2013/Lei/L12853.htm (Accessed: July 8, 2014).
Brazilian Law 9279 [Online]. Available from: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/l9279.htm (Accessed: July 8, 2014).